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Vedolizumab or Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonist

Vedolizumab or Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonist Use and Risk of New or Recurrent Cancer in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease With Prior Malignancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study Vedamurthy A, Gangasani N, Ananthakrishnan AN. Published Jan 2022, in the Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology.


Background & aims: Treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) who have a prior history of cancer pose a unique challenge. The impact of Vedolizumab (VDZ) on the risk of new or recurrent cancers in patients with a previous malignancy is unknown.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with IBD with a history of current or prior cancer who were subsequently initiated on VDZ, tumor necrosis factor α antagonists (anti-TNF), or had no immunosuppressive therapy after the index cancer diagnosis. The occurrence of a new primary cancer or recurrent cancer was ascertained on follow-up. Multivariable Cox-proportional hazard models were used to determine the independent effect of post-cancer treatment on new/recurrent cancer.

Results: The study included 96 patients exposed to VDZ after a prior diagnosis of cancer who were compared to 184 and 183 patients exposed to anti-TNF or no immunosuppressive therapy, respectively. The most common primary cancer were solid tumors (50%). Over a median of 6.2 person-years of follow-up, 18 patients on VDZ developed new (7) or recurrent (11) cancer corresponding to a rate of 22 per 1000 person-years after cancer diagnosis. In a multivariable Cox-model, after adjusting for confounders, there was no increase in the risk of new or recurrent cancer with VDZ (HR 1.38 95% CI 0.38 - 1.36) or anti-TNF therapy (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.65 - 1.64), when compared to no IS.

Conclusions: Neither Vedolizumab nor TNF-antagonists were associated with increased risk of new or recurrent cancers in patients with prior malignancy.

Keywords: Biologics; Cancer Recurrence; IBD.


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