Systematic Review on Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019


Systematic Review on Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019: It Is Time to Take Stock


Background & Aims

Data on the clinical characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are scarce. The aim of our systematic review was to investigate symptoms and diagnostic–therapeutic management of IBD patients with COVID-19.


Methods

We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and MedRxiv up to July 29, 2020, to identify all studies reporting clinical information on adult and pediatric IBD patients with confirmed COVID-19.


Results

Twenty-three studies met our inclusion criteria, including 243,760 IBD patients. COVID-19 was diagnosed in 1028 patients (509 with Crohn’s disease [49.5%], 428 with ulcerative colitis [41.6%], 49 with indeterminate colitis [4.8%], and 42 with missing data [4.1%]), accounting for a cumulative prevalence of 0.4%. Viral infection occurred more frequently in males than in females (56.5% vs 39.7%), and the mean age ranged from 14 to 85 years. The most common symptoms were fever (48.3%), cough (46.5%), and diarrhea (20.5%), and a COVID-19 diagnosis was achieved mainly through polymerase chain reaction analysis of nasopharyngeal swabs (94.4%) and chest computed tomography scans (38.9%). Hydroxychloroquine (23.9%), lopinavir/ritonavir (8.2%), steroids (3.2%), and antibiotics (3.1%) were the most used drugs. Overall, approximately a third of patients were hospitalized (30.6%), and 11.4% of them required admission to the intensive care unit. In total, 29 COVID-19–related deaths were reported (3.8%), and increasing age and the presence of comorbidities were recognized as risk factors for COVID-19 and negative outcomes.


Conclusions

Diarrhea occurs more frequently in IBD patients with COVID-19 than in the non-IBD population. Further studies are needed to define the optimal diagnostic–therapeutic approach in IBD patients with COVID-19.

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