Outcomes of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for C. difficile Infection in IBD

Outcomes of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for C. difficile Infection in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Tariq R, Syed T, Yadav D, Prokop LJ, Singh S, Loftus EV Jr, Pardi DS, Khanna S. Published Dec 2021, in the Journal of clinical gastroenterology.


Abstract

Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a safe and effective therapy for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Data on FMT for CDI in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are emerging but conflicting. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to describe the efficacy and safety of FMT for CDI in IBD and its impact on IBD outcomes.

Methods: A systematic search of multiple databases including Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science was performed. Our primary analysis focused on pooled rate of CDI resolution after single and multiple FMTs in IBD patients. Additional analyses included rates of IBD-associated outcomes (flare, surgery, symptom improvement) after FMT. The random-effects model was used to calculate pooled rates.

Results: Among 457 adult patients, 363 had CDI resolution after first FMT with a pooled cure rate of 78% [95% confidence interval (CI): 73%-83%; I2=39%]. Overall pooled rate cure rate with single and multiple FMTs was 88% (95% CI: 81%-94%; I2=73%). The pooled rate of an IBD flare after FMT was 26.8% (95% CI: 22.5%-31.6%; I2=9%) and of colectomy was 7.3% (95% CI: 4.7%-10.5%; I2=56%). Among 141 pediatric patients, 106 had CDI resolution after first FMT with pooled cure rate of 78% (95% CI: 58%-93%; I2=59%). Overall pooled cure rate with single and multiple FMTs was 77% (95% CI: 50%-96%; I2=63%). The pooled rate of an IBD flare after FMT was 10.8% (95% CI: 5.7%-18.5% I2=43%), and of colectomy was 10.3% (95% CI: 2.1%-30.2% I2=23%).

Conclusions: FMT appears to be a highly effective therapy for preventing recurrent CDI in patients with IBD. Patients who fail a single FMT may benefit from multiple FMTs.

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