Fecal and mucosal microbiota profiling in pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases

Updated: May 6

Fecal and mucosal microbiota profiling in pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases Putignani L, Oliva S, Isoldi S, Del Chierico F, Carissimi C, Laudadio I, Cucchiara S, Stronati L Published Nov 2021, in the European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology.


Abstract

Background: An altered gut microbiota profile has been widely documented in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The intestinal microbial community has been more frequently investigated in the stools than at the level of the mucosa, while most of the studies have been performed in adults. We aimed to define the gut microbiota profile either by assessing fecal and colonic mucosa samples (inflamed or not) from pediatric IBD patients.

Patients and methods: Fecal and colonic samples from pediatric IBD (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis) and controls were analyzed. The relative abundance of bacteria at phylum and genus/species levels and bacterial diversity were determined through 16S rRNA sequence-based of fecal and mucosal microbiota analysis.

Results: A total of 59 children with IBD (26 Crohn's disease, 33 ulcerative colitis) and 39 controls were analyzed. A clear separation between IBD and controls in the overall composition of fecal and mucosal microbiota was found, as well as a reduced bacterial richness in the fecal microbiota of IBD. At the phylum level, abundance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria occurred in fecal microbiota of IBD, while species with anti-inflammatory properties (i.e., Ruminococcus) were reduced. Fusobacterium prevailed in inflamed IBD areas in comparison to noninflamed and controls samples.

Conclusion: Significant alterations in gut microbiota profile were shown in our IBD pediatric patients, in whom an abundance of species with a proinflammatory mucosal activity was clearly detected. An analysis of gut microbiota could be incorporated in designing personalized IBD treatment scenarios in future.

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