Changing phenotype, early clinical course and clinical predictors of inflammatory bowel disease in Sri Lanka: a retrospective, tertiary care-based, multi-centre study
M. A. Niriella, I. K. Liyanage, S. K. Kodisinghe, A. P. De Silva, A. V. G. A. M. Jayatissa, N. M. M. Navarathne, R. K. Peiris, U. P. Kalubovila, S. R. Kumarasena, R. W. Jayasekara & H. J. de Silva
Published Feb, 2021 in the BMC Gastroenterology Journal
Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in the Asia-Pacific region, with changes in disease phenotype and course. We aimed to assess the changing phenotypes of IBD over ten years, describe the early clinical course (ECC) and identify the clinical predictors (CP) of poor outcomes among a large, multi-centre, cohort of Sri Lankan IBD patients.
Methods We included patients [diagnosed between June/2003–December/2009-Group-1(G1), January/2010–June/2016-Group-2(G2)] with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD) from five national-referral centres. Changing phenotype from G1 to G2, ECC (disease duration < 3-years) and CP of poor outcomes (disease duration ≥ 1-year) was assessed. Poor outcomes were complicated-disease (CompD-stricturing/penetrating-CD, extensive-UC/pancolitis, perforation/bleeding/colectomy/malignancy) and treatment-refractory disease (TRD-frequently-relapsing, steroid-dependent/refractory and biologic use).
Results 375 (UC-227, CD-148) patients were recruited. Both G1/G2 had more UC than CD (77% vs 23%, 54.5 vs 45.5 respectively, p < 0.01). Increase of CD from G1-to-G2 was significant (23–45.4%, p < 0.001). In both groups, left-sided colitis (E2) and ileo-colonic (L3)/non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease behaviour (B1) CD predominated. Extensive-colitis (E3) (36.4% vs 22.7, p < 0.05) and stricturing-CD (B2) (26.1% vs 4.0%, p < 0.01) was commoner in G1. ECC was assessed in 173-patients (UC-94, CD-79). Aggressive disease behaviour and TRD were low among both UC and CD. Immunomodulator use was significantly higher among CD than UC (61.5% vs 29.0% respectively, p < 0.01). Anti-TNF use was low among both groups (UC-3.2%, CD-7.7%). Disease complications among UC [bleeding (2.1%), malignancy-(1.1%), surgery-(2.1%)] and CD [stricture-(3.9%), perforation-(1.3%), malignancy-(1.3%), surgery-(8.9%)] were generally low. CPs were assessed in 271-patients (UC-163, CD-108). Having a family history of IBD (for UC), extraintestinal manifestation (EIM), severe disease at presentation, being in younger age categories and severe disease at presentation, (for both UC and CD) predicted poor outcomes.
Conclusion There was an increase in CD over time without change in disease phenotype for both UC and CD. A relatively benign ECC was observed. Family history (UC), EIMs (UC/CD), severe disease at presentation (UC/CD), younger age (CD/UC) CPs of poor outcomes.