Association Between Helicobacter pylori Colonization and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Hesamaddin Shirzad-Aski, Sima Besharat, Sabine Kienesberger, Ahmad Sohrabi, Gholamreza Roshandel, Taghi Amiriani, Alireza Norouzi, Aabbas Keshtkar Published Nov 2021, in the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology.
Background: Various observational studies have examined a potential relationship between Helicobacter pylori colonization and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs); however, results are inconclusive. This systematic review evaluates articles reporting an association between human H. pylori colonization and IBD. Methods: A systematic search of studies was conducted to evaluate a possible relationship between H. pylori colonization and IBD. Seven databases and different types of gray literature were searched. After screening for relevant articles, selection and data extraction were done. After that, the data were analyzed, and pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated, using meta-analysis. Heterogeneity, sensitivity, and subgroups analyses were conducted. Funnel plots followed by Begg and Egger tests were done to assess the publication bias. Results: Among 58 studies, including 13,549 patients with IBD and 506,554 controls, the prevalence of H. pylori colonization was 22.74% and 36.30%, respectively. A significant negative association was observed between H. pylori colonization and IBD (pooled OR: 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.53, P≤0.001). The random-effect model showed significant statistical heterogeneity in the included studies (I 2=79%). No publication bias was observed. Among subgroups, ORs were notably different when the data were stratified by the age difference between patient and control group, and by study regions and/or continent. Finally, the meta-regression analysis showed significant results, in terms of the age difference and region variables. Conclusions: In this meta-analysis, all statistical data support the theory that H. pylori has a protective role in IBD. However, more primary studies using proper methodology are needed to confirm this association.