Impact of Demographic, Clinical and Psychosocial Variables on Drug Adherence and Outcomes in Indian Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Cost is not the Only Factor!
Background and aims: Barriers to drug adherence in the developing world are multifactorial and under evaluated. We aimed to evaluate predictive factors of medication adherence in Indian patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and association of adherence with quality of life (QOL) and relapse free remission. Materials and methods: Adherence was assessed in consecutive IBD patients using a self-administered survey questionnaire including Morisky Medication Adherence Scale together with interview and Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ) to assess QOL. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables correlating with adherence, Cox proportional hazards method used for variables associated with relapse and Kaplan-Meier survival curve used for comparing relapse free remission in adherent and nonadherent. Results: A total of 467 consecutive outpatients (279 ulcerative colitis, 188 Crohn's disease, mean age 38.6 y) were mostly on mesalazine 439 (94%) or thiopurines 213 (46%). Self-reported nonadherence was noted in 236/467 (51%). Disease remission was associated with medication adherence [P=0.003, odds ratio (OR): 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-2.52]. Medication-related factors like high dosing frequency (>3/d) (OR: 0.39, P=0.005) and concomitant non-IBD medications (OR: 0.44, P=0.007) were associated with nonadherence. Psychosocial factors associated with nonadherence were lack of drug information (OR: 0.30, P<0.001), feeling depressed (OR: 0.43, P<0.001), comorbidities (OR: 0.47, P=0.005), doubts about efficacy (OR: 0.49, P=0.001) and perceived poor QOL (OR: 0.61, P=0.01). High-cost perception was associated with nonadherence in univariate analysis (OR: 0.47, P<0.001) but lost significance on multivariate analysis (OR: 0.68, P=0.07). Physician imparting disease information (OR: 2.5, P=0.14) and physician reinforcement (OR: 1.8, P=0.049) were associated with adherence.Adherence was associated with improved QOL (SIBDQ, R=0.724). Nonadherence was associated with >3-fold risk of recurrence within 2 years (hazard ratio: 3.89, 95% CI: 2.74-5.52, P<0.001). Conclusions: Nonadherence is common in Indian IBD patients but adherence is associated with improved QoL and lower probability of relapse. Psychosocial and medication-related factors are important determinants of adherence compared with demographic or clinical variables and should be addressed.