Diet and nutrition in the management of inflammatory bowel disease

Pabitra Sahu, Saurabh Kedia, Vineet Ahuja, Rakesh K Tandon

Published in Indian journal of gastroenterology, May 2021.

Abstract

The role of diet and its manipulation in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is gradually acquiring central stage. Certain dietary factors have been identified as putative triggers in IBD as some other factors are found to be protective. The dietary manipulation as part of comprehensive IBD care should be done by the clinician in conjunction with a skilled dietitian. Nutritional deficiencies are common in patients with IBD and can have long-term effects on disease course and quality of life in these patients. So, early identification and correction of these deficiencies along with proper nutritional supplementation should be addressed routinely as a part of IBD management. Oral nutritional supplementation is sufficient for most patients, but in some sick patients, tube feeding may be necessary. Diet needs to be individualized based on the nutritional deficiencies and dietary triggers in a specific patient. Multiple specific diets, with elimination of components that trigger inflammation or addition of components that alter gut microbes in a favorable way, are now appearing as a treatment option in IBD, but more evidence is required before their universal recommendation. Though enteral nutrition (EN) (both exclusive enteral nutrition [EEN] and partial enteral nutrition [PEN]) have proven therapeutic role in pediatric IBD, their uses and role are now expanding in adult IBD patients as well.


Keywords: Crohn’s Disease Exclusion Diet; Exclusive enteral nutrition; FODMAPS; Inflammatory bowel disease; Nutrition; Parenteral nutrition; Partial enteral nutrition.

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