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Assessment of Stool DNA Markers to Detect Colorectal Neoplasia in Patients

Updated: Sep 20, 2023

Assessment of Stool DNA Markers to Detect Colorectal Neoplasia in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Multi-site Case-control Study

Steven Itzkowitz, Francis A Farraye, Paul J Limburg, Zubin Gagrat, Marilyn C Olson, Julia Zella, John B Kisiel

Published on 11 May 2023, Journal of Crohn's and Colitis


Abstract


Background and Aims: The FDA-approved multitarget stool-DNA [mt-sDNA] test is a successful colorectal cancer [CRC] screening tool in average-risk individuals but is not indicated for patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. We determined the performance of the mt-sDNA assay without the haemoglobin component [mt-sDNAHgb-] in patients with IBD, while measuring sensitivity for colorectal cancer and advanced colorectal neoplasia [ACRN].


Methods: This was a multi-centre, proof-of-concept investigation in persons aged 18–84 years with a diagnosis of IBD, or primary sclerosing cholangitis [PSC] with IBD. Enrolment occurred between March 2013 and May 2016. Stool was tested with the mt-sDNA molecular markers only, minus the immunochemical haemoglobin component.


Results: The analysis set contained 355 samples. The median age was 52 [range 39–62] years, 45.6% were female and 93% were White. Two-thirds [63%] had ulcerative colitis [UC] and 10.1% had PSC/IBD. Colonoscopy revealed cancer in 8.5% [N = 30], advanced precancerous lesions [APLs] in 9.3% [N = 33] and non-advanced precancerous lesions in 7.6% [N = 27], and three-quarters [74.7%, N = 265] had negative findings. mt-sDNAHgb- sensitivity was 73.3% for any stage cancers, and 76.2% for ACRN. Sensitivity was highest for IBD-associated high-grade dysplasia at 100% and 84.6% for IBD-associated low-grade dysplasia ≥1 cm. The test showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity in UC than in Crohn’s disease. Increasing inflammation score was associated with a significant decrease in mt-sDNAHgb- test score [ = 0.028] amongst neoplasia-negative individuals, but not in patients with ACRN.


Conclusions: These data highlight the potential of multitarget stool-DNA marker testing as an important addition to colorectal cancer surveillance by complementing colonoscopic evaluations in IBD patients.




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