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Assessing the inflammatory severity of the terminal ileum in Crohn disease using radiomics

Assessing the inflammatory severity of the terminal ileum in Crohn disease using radiomics based on MRI.

Honglei Ding, Jiaying Li, Kefang Jiang, Chen Gao, Liangji Lu, Huani Zhang, Haibo Chen, Xuning Gao, Kefeng Zhou & Zhichao Sun

Published in Jul 2022, BMC medical imaging.


Abstract

Background Evaluating inflammatory severity using imaging is essential for Crohn’s disease, but it is limited by potential interobserver variation and subjectivity. We compared the efficiency of magnetic resonance index of activity (MaRIA) collected by radiologists and a radiomics model in assessing the inflammatory severity of terminal ileum (TI).

Methods 121 patients were collected from two centers. Patients were divided into ulcerative group and mucosal remission group based on the TI Crohn’s disease Endoscopic Severity Index. The consistency of bowel wall thickness (BWT), relative contrast enhancement (RCE), edema, ulcer, MaRIA and features of the region of interest between radiologists were described by weighted Kappa test and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and developed receiver operating curve of MaRIA. The radiomics model was established using reproducible features of logistic regression based on arterial staging of T1WI sequences. Delong test was used to compare radiomics with MaRIA.

Results The consistency between radiologists were moderate in BWT (ICC = 0.638), fair in edema (κ = 0.541), RCE (ICC = 0.461), MaRIA (ICC = 0.579) and poor in ulcer (κ = 0.271). Radiomics model was developed by 6 reproducible features (ICC = 0.93–0.96) and equivalent to MaRIA which evaluated by the senior radiologist (0.872 vs 0.883 in training group, 0.824 vs 0.783 in validation group, P = 0.847, 0.471), both of which were significantly higher than MaRIA evaluated by junior radiologist (AUC: 0.621 in training group, 0.557 in validation group, all, P < 0.05).

Conclusion The evaluation of inflammatory severity could be performed by radiomics objectively and reproducibly, and was comparable to MaRIA evaluated by the senior radiologist. Radiomics may be an important method to assist junior radiologists to assess the severity of inflammation objectively and accurately.



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