Antibiotic use differentially affects the risk of antidrug antibody formation during anti-TNFα therapy in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a report from the epi-IIRN
Yuri Gorelik ,Shay Freilich, Shiran Gerassy-Vainberg, Sigal Pressman, Chagit Friss, Alexandera Blatt, Gili Focht, Yiska Loewenberg Weisband, Shira Greenfeld, Revital Kariv, Nathan Lederman, Iris Dotan, Naama Geva-Zatorsky, Yechezkel Kashi, Shai Shlomo Shen-Orr, Yehuda Chowers, On behalf of the IIRN
Objective Anti-drug antibodies (ADA) to anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy drive treatment loss of response. An association between intestinal microbial composition and response to anti-TNF therapy was noted. We therefore aimed to assess the implications of antibiotic treatments on ADA formation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Design We analysed data from the epi-IIRN (epidemiology group of the Israeli IBD research nucleus), a nationwide registry of all patients with IBD in Israel. We included all patients treated with anti-TNF who had available ADA levels. Survival analysis with drug use as time varying covariates were used to assess the association between antibiotic use and ADA development. Next, specific pathogen and germ-free C57BL mice were treated with respective antibiotics and challenged with infliximab. ADA were assessed after 14 days.
Results Among 1946 eligible patients, with a median follow-up of 651 days from initiation of therapy, 363 had positive ADA. Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated an increased risk of ADA development in patients who used cephalosporins (HR=1.97, 95%CI 1.58 to 2.44), or penicillins with β-lactamase inhibitors (penicillin-BLI, HR=1.4, 95%CI 1.13 to 1.74), whereas a reduced risk was noted in patients treated with macrolides (HR=0.38, 95%CI 0.16 to 0.86) or fluoroquinolones (HR=0.20, 95%CI 0.12 to 0.35). In mice exposed to infliximab, significantly increased ADA production was observed in cephalosporin as compared with macrolide pretreated mice. Germ-free mice produced no ADA.
Conclusion ADA production is associated with the microbial composition. The risk of ADA development during anti-TNF therapy can possibly be reduced by avoidance of cephalosporins and penicillin-BLIs, or by treatment with fluoroquinolones or macrolides.